First Advisor

Masami Nishishiba

Term of Graduation

Winter 2021

Date of Publication


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in Public Affairs and Policy


Public Affairs and Policy




Pay equity, Sex role, Sex discrimination



Physical Description

1 online resource (viii, 171 pages)


The gender wage gap has been persistent despite the introduction of new laws designed to address the disparity. One of the challenges in addressing this inequity is the lack of complete understanding of the driving factors of the pay gap. One yet unexplored factor is the impact of the gender role, which is a social role based on sex/gender which provides a structure and expectations for social relationships. The purpose of this research was to explore the relationship between gender role, biological sex, and base pay. A matched, cross-sectional sample drawn from large U.S. cities was utilized to test the mediating impact of gender role, specifically the masculine and feminine gender roles. In addition to determining if a mediating impact occurred, a decomposition analysis was utilized in order to understand the way in which gender role differences were impacting males and females. Additional analyses were performed to address the impact of gender role within the public and private sectors and the within sex-typed industries (defined as industries with more than 70% male or female workers). The feminine gender role may have a mediating impact, with less pay for both males and females who exhibited the feminine gender role. Females were more likely to experience this negative impact compared to males. However, there was not an impact found for the masculine gender role. Respondents from the private sector mirrored this overall finding, but the impact of the feminine gender role for respondents from the public sector was lessened. The impact within sex-typed industries was inconclusive. Gender role as it relates to pay equity may be an important avenue for future research.


© Jillian Ann Girard

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