First Advisor

Vivek Shandas

Term of Graduation

Fall 2021

Date of Publication


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in Urban Studies


Urban Studies and Planning




Ecosystem services, Urban forestry, Environmental justice



Physical Description

1 online resource (x, 200 pages)


Nature-based solutions encompass strategies that explore ecosystem-based adaptations, green infrastructures, and ecosystem services in environmental planning and landscape management. However, nature-based solutions do not always consider ecological values and perspectives from Black, Indigenous, and Global South population. This dissertation has three independent papers that explore the application of ecosystem-based adaptations, green infrastructures, and ecosystem services in communities unheard by environmental planning agencies. The first paper is a conceptual framework that used literature review and observations of current human-nature interactions to reflect how the criminalization, acculturation, and cultural appropriation of cultural ecosystem services have burdened Black and Indigenous identities. Recommendations for the inclusion of diverse cultural ecosystem services values in environmental planning include ecosystem-based adaptations and frameworks of reimagination. The second paper is a case study about urban mobility in the Southern Zone of São Paulo, Brazil. Using surveys, interviews, and spatial analysis, I explored mobility patterns for urban services in macro zones of social and ecological vulnerability. The clusters for urban services were in macro zones of complete infrastructure or close to vulnerable housing spaces, opening space for discussion of the use of green infrastructure to mitigate social and ecological vulnerability. The third paper is a case study in Portland, OR, that used surveys, demographic indicators, and spatial data to explore the sense of ownership and maintenance for urban forestry. The results indicated a significant correlation among tree canopy, household income, and sense of ownership for urban forestry. The results suggested that Portland residents are aware of tree maintenance challenges and the values of cultural ecosystem services for ownership of urban forestry. The three papers contribute to including historically marginalized values in environmental planning and validating mixed methods that use spatial analysis and public perceptions.


© 2021 Lorena Alves Carvalho Nascimento

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Persistent Identifier

Included in

Urban Studies Commons