First Advisor

Sandra C. Anderson

Term of Graduation

Spring 2004

Date of Publication


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in Social Work and Social Research


Social Work and Social Research




Teenage pregnancy -- Tobacco use -- Oregon -- Portland, Teenage mothers-- Tobacco use-- Oregon -- Portland, Smoking cessation products-- Oregon -- Portland



Physical Description

1 online resource (2, v, 172 pages)


An unacceptably high number of pregnant and parenting adolescent females smoke cigarettes, and the majority who quit during pregnancy relapse within six months postpartum. This dissertation examined measures from the Transtheoretical Model of Change (TMC) and variables associated with smoking behavior in a population of pregnant and parenting females 18 years-of-age and under. Data were from the baseline survey of 245 young women enrolled in a three-year randomized controlled trial through a teen parent program in Portland, Oregon. The objectives were: 1) to investigate whether factors identified in the literature as associated with initiating and quitting smoking were associated with never smokers and teens in the stages of change, 2) to determine whether stage effects (i.e., theoretically predicted associations between the stages and TMC measures) were exhibited for the TMC constructs of decisional balance, temptations to smoke, processes of change, and self-efficacy for the total sample and by pregnancy status.

Measures included the Decisional Balance Scale and Temptation to Smoke Scale used in a study by Plummer et al. (2001 ), an abbreviated Processes of Change measure, several standardized scales and measures of psychosocial constructs, and substance use measures from national surveys.

Significant associations by categories of never smokers and TMC stages of change were found for several psychosocial variables including pregnancy status, perceived wrong and harm of smoking, partner and friends' smoking, current alcohol and marijuana use, smoking self-efficacy, and smoking intention. Interactions between TMC measures and stages of change showed little influence for the role of peer pressure in smoking; rather, smoking as a means to deal with stress and frustration and to avoid unpleasant emotions were significant factors. Also, lack of use of stage-appropriate internal processes of change and coping methods may indicate that teens who have quit smoking are at high risk for relapse. Implications of these and other findings as well as recommendations for social work research, policy, and practice are discussed.


© 2004 Barbara M. Sussex

In Copyright. URI: This Item is protected by copyright and/or related rights. You are free to use this Item in any way that is permitted by the copyright and related rights legislation that applies to your use. For other uses you need to obtain permission from the rights-holder(s).


If you are the rightful copyright holder of this dissertation or thesis and wish to have it removed from the Open Access Collection, please submit a request to and include clear identification of the work, preferably with URL.

Persistent Identifier

Included in

Social Work Commons