First Advisor

Leslie B. Hammer

Term of Graduation


Date of Publication


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in Systems Science: Psychology


Systems Science




Work and family -- Longitudinal studies, Dual-career families -- Longitudinal studies, Caregivers -- Longitudinal studies, Sandwich generation -- Longitudinal studies



Physical Description

1 online resource (viii, 210 pages)


This dissertation integrates theory and research in the examination of the antecedents of work-family conflict for dual-earner couples in the sandwiched generation. In a continuation of Frone, Yardly and Markel's (1997) study, this dissertation uses longitudinal data to test the mediating effects of job and family satisfaction variables on the relationship between the antecedent variables and work-family conflict, and between work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict. Because Frone et al.'s 1997 model was examined using cross-sectional data, this dissertation provides a more stringent test of the model of the work-family interface. Two waves of mailed surveys were collected from 234 couples (309 couples total returned the first wave of survey) to assess the changes over time. The analytical steps for determining mediating effects in this dissertation followed suggestions by Baron and Kenny (1986). Two revised models, one for husbands and one for wives, were developed based on the findings from testing mediating effects, and tested using covariance structural modeling. A system dynamics model representing work-family conflict was constructed to demonstrate the feasibility of applying system dynamics to work-family conflict and other related problems. The results indicated: (a) some work conditions were indirect predictors of work-to-family conflict and the relationships were mediated by job satisfaction level, while some showed direct effects on work-to-family conflict and others showed no effects; (b) for both wives and husbands, this study provided less support for the relationships between family conditions and family-to-work conflict compared to the relationships between work conditions and work-to-family conflict, and (c) no mediating effects of job satisfaction or family satisfaction on the relationships between the two forms of work-family conflict were found for either husbands or wives, contrary to the indirect relationships suggested by Frone et al., 1997. Contributions, implications and limitations of this study are discussed.


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