First Advisor

Larry R. Martinez

Term of Graduation

Spring 2022

Date of Publication


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in Applied Psychology






Leadership, Diversity in the workplace, Organizational behavior, Corporate culture



Physical Description

1 online resource (viii, 119 pages)


Many organizations view diversity as a strategic business priority that provides important benefits such as increased creativity and innovation. Research indicates, however, that the potential benefits of diversity cannot be realized without employees feeling a sense of inclusion, which involves feeling like one belongs and can be themselves at work. Although scholars acknowledge the important role managers play in fostering inclusion, there remains limited research on specific behaviors they can enact to foster inclusion perceptions in their work groups. Additionally, there is a lack of agreement in the literature about the scope of "inclusive leadership." Historically, scholars viewed inclusive leadership as behaviors that enhance employee voice and foster psychological safety, but new theory has reconceptualized it as behaviors that foster perceptions of inclusion. In this dissertation, I sought to clarify the construct and develop and validate a measure of inclusive leadership (the ILQ) based on new theory (i.e., Perry et al., 2020; Randel et al., 2018), which operationalizes inclusive leadership as a multi-dimensional construct involving behaviors that facilitate belongingness, value uniqueness, and prevent and address mistreatment. To do so, I used Hinkin's (1998) approach: Phase 1, item generation, was completed by 13 subject matter experts; Phase 2, content validity evidence, was provided by 45 working adults and 12 subject matter experts; Phase 3, exploratory factor analysis, was conducted based on responses from 275 working adults; Phase 4, confirmatory factor analysis, was conducted based on responses from 273 working adults; Phase 5, convergent and discriminant validity evidence was provided by 255 working adults; and Phase 6, predictive and incremental validity evidence was provided by 352 working adults. Overall, the results supported the hypothesized factor structure, convergent validity, and predictive utility of the ILQ over and above existing measures of inclusive leadership. Findings provided empirical support for a theoretically grounded, multi-dimensional inclusive leadership construct based on Randel et al.'s (2018) and Perry et al's (2020) frameworks. Finally, results demonstrate the theoretical and practical utility of such a measure.


© 2022 Kelly Mason Hamilton

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