First Advisor

Chris Borgmeier

Term of Graduation

Spring 2022

Date of Publication


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ed.D.) in Educational Leadership: Special and Counselor Education


Educational Leadership and Policy





Physical Description

1 online resource (v, 143 pages)


According to data from U.S. Bureau of Labor and Statistics in 2018, it is estimated that there are 1,308,100 paraeducators employed in public schools in the United States. Despite the prevalence of paraeducators, these employees receive limited opportunity for training. In addition, there is little guidance from the Department of Education or Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) for effective professional development (Brock & Carter, 2013) and there are no standardized job qualifications or job descriptions across states and school districts. This lack of uniformity, combined with vague job descriptions often result in paraeducators entering the education field with no formal education and training, despite the fact that these are the employees who are most likely to work with the most challenging students (Brock & Carter, 2013; Giangreco, Doylem & Suter, 2012). To work with students with disabilities more successfully, there needs to be a concerted effort to identify and develop comprehensive and effective training options for paraeducators, including components of adult learning theory and self-monitoring measurement tools. This quantitative, pre/post design study examined the impact of professional development model, TEACH (Training to Evidence- and Assessment-based Classroom Habits; Borgmeier, Simonsen, & Freeman, 2014) on a group of eight paraeducators' implementation of pre-correction and active supervision and disruptive, off-task student behavior. The results of all of these measures were mixed, showing that TEACH had a positive impact on self-efficacy, active supervision, and out of classroom referrals for students while the opposite was true for pre-correction and on-task student behavior. Based on the results, recommendations are made for future research in this area.


In Copyright. URI: This Item is protected by copyright and/or related rights. You are free to use this Item in any way that is permitted by the copyright and related rights legislation that applies to your use. For other uses you need to obtain permission from the rights-holder(s).

Persistent Identifier