First Advisor

Robert Bass

Term of Graduation

Spring 2022

Date of Publication


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (M.S.) in Electrical and Computer Engineering


Electrical and Computer Engineering





Physical Description

1 online resource (x, 82 pages)


With the constant increase in energy demand, finding ways to reduce peak load and the energy-costs factors has become more imperative. Domestic water heating showcases a significant opportunity for such applications. Water heating is the second-highest energy consumer in the residential sector across the United States. Electric Water Heaters (EWHs), in particular, constitute nearly 43% of American household water heating energy consumption. Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH), on the other hand, are an advanced water heating technology that has recently emerged in the United States residential market.

The objectives of this work are to develop a HPWH model and build a case study that evaluates various penetration levels of HPWH in providing reduced peak load and cost-effective energy savings for both utilities and customers. The HPWH model was developed and integrated within the GridLAB-D simulation environment. The model behavior was then validated against a real HPWH unit at Portland State University (PSU).

The case studies incorporated five HPWH penetration levels, ranging from 20% to 100%. In each case, EWHs were replaced with HPWHs. The results showed that a high penetration level of HPWHs can reduce the energy consumption on a distribution system to 38%.


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