First Advisor

Jonathan Abramson

Date of Publication

Summer 1-1-2012

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in Applied Physics






Heart failures, Ventricular, RyR2, Myocardium -- Diseases -- Treatment, Cardiovascular agents -- Research, Ryanodine -- Receptors



Physical Description

1 online resource (ix, 76 p.) : ill. (some col.)


Heart failure resulting from different forms of cardiomyopathy is defined as the inability of the heart to pump sufficient blood to meet the body's metabolic demands. It is a major disease burden worldwide and the statistics show that 50% of the people who have the heart failure will eventually die from sudden cardiac death (SCD) associated with an arrhythmia. The central cause of disability and SCD is because of ventricular arrhythmias. Genetic mutations and acquired modifications to RyR2, the calcium release channel from sarcoplasmic reticulum, can increase the pathologic SR Ca2+ leak during diastole, which leads to defects in SR calcium handling and causes ventricular arrhythmias. The mechanism of RyR2 dysfunction includes abnormal phosphorylation, disrupted interaction with regulatory proteins and ions, or altered RyR2 domain interactions. Many pharmacological strategies have shown promising prospects to modulate the RyR2 as a therapy for treating cardiac arrhythmias. Here, we are trying to establish a novel approach to designing new drugs to treat heart failure and cardiac arrhythmias. Previously, we demonstrated that all pharmacological inhibitors of RyR channels are electron donors while all activators of RyR channels are electron acceptors. This was the first demonstration that an exchange of electrons was a common molecular mechanism involved in modifying the function of the RyR. Moreover, we found that there is a strong correlation between the strength of the electron donor/acceptor, and its potency as a channel inhibitor/activator, which could serve as a basis and direction for developing new drugs targeting the RyR. In this study, two new potent RyR inhibitors, 4-methoxy-3-methyl phenol (4-MmC) and the 1,3 dioxole derivative of K201, were synthesized which are derivatives of the known RyR modulators, 4-chloro-3-methyl phenol (4-CmC) and K201. The ability of K201, 1,3 dioxole derivative of K201 and 4-MmC to inhibit the cardiac calcium channel is examined and compared at the single channel level. All of these compounds inhibited the channel activity at low micromolar concentrations or sub-micromolar concentrations.


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Portland State University. Dept. of Physics

Persistent Identifier