First Advisor

Liu-Qin Yang

Term of Graduation

Summer 2023

Date of Publication


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (M.S.) in Psychology






anxiety, bystander, Customer sexual harassment, depressive symptoms, turnover intentions



Physical Description

1 online resource (vi, 80 pages)


Despite the high prevalence of customer sexual harassment (CSH) paired with a high turnover in the restaurant industry, there have been few suggestions on resources that may attenuate the effect that bystander and direct CSH might have on strain--anxiety and depressive symptoms--and turnover intentions among restaurant workers. Based on the stipulations of the job-demands resources theory and the empowerment framework, the current study frames direct and bystander CSH as job demands that may be linked to employee strain and turnover intentions. Moreover, CSH preventive supervisor behaviors and organizational intolerance towards CSH are introduced as job resources that may weaken the relationships between CSH and strain as well as turnover intentions. A sample of restaurant employees (n = 93) were recruited to complete two surveys. Overall, the results support the association between high CSH frequency and increased anxiety in the same week. Moreover, preventive supervisor behaviors were supported as an organizational resource that may reduce restaurant employee’s depressive symptoms and turnover intentions. Finally, the incremental effect of bystander CSH was not supported. Several explanations for these findings are discussed, as well as the limitations and future research directions.


© 2023 Fernanda Wolburg Martinez

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