First Advisor

John F. Heflin

Date of Publication


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ed.D.) in Public School Administration and Supervision


Educational Leadership and Policy




Multicultural education -- United States -- States, Education and state -- United States -- States



Physical Description

4, vii, 165 leaves 28 cm.


This study addresses the growth of multicultural education through a policy analysis paradigm. This study focuses on the growth and current status of multicultural education through policy formation, the administration of multicultural education through policy implementation and the effects of multicultural education through policy impact. To obtain data regarding the three areas of multicultural education policy status, implementation and impact, a survey was sent to all fifty chief state school officers (CSSOs). The survey inquired about the current status of multicultural education policy mandates and administrative processes used in policy implementation. Policy impact was assessed through CSSO's responses to ten perceptual statements about the impact of multicultural education. The findings reveal that thirty-three states have at least multicultural programming policy mandate in the areas of multicultural education, bilingual education, ethnic studies, affirmative action, textbook adoption procedures, or inservice education and technical assistance. The frequency of these policy mandates has decreased since 1980. The usage of certain common administrative practices were examined to determine multicultural education policy and program implementation. The most frequently used practices are (1) the involvement of students, teachers, administrators and community members in planning at the state level (2) a reflection of multicultural education in state education agency organizational structure and (3) assignment of specific personnel the responsibility for implementing multicultural programming. The impact of multicultural education is viewed by CSSOs as a positive force in schools; however, it has not been evenly implemented within or across the states nor has it been a major focus in most states. An examination of the response patterns of two groups of CSSOs (those with mandated multicultural education policies in their respective states and those without) reveals that the two groups view multicultural educational impact differently. Those CSSOs with mandated state policies responded more positively to the impact of multicultural education. From examining the data regarding policy status, implementation and impact, certain inferences are drawn about the current status and future of multicultural education.


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Portland State University. School of Education.

Persistent Identifier