First Advisor

Gary Brodowicz

Date of Publication

Spring 6-14-2013

Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (M.S.) in Health Studies


Community Health




Smoothies (Beverages) -- Health aspects, Chronic diseases -- Prevention -- Nutritional aspects, Vegetables in human nutrition, Quality of life



Physical Description

1 online resource (ix, 106 pages)


Chronic diseases are among the leading causes of death globally, and as much as 80% of these deaths are reported to be preventable with proper diet and lifestyle. Although extensive research has demonstrated that the increased consumption of fruits and vegetables offers protective health effects from many chronic illnesses, populations in both developed and developing nations consistently fall short of the recommended intake of 5 or more servings a day. This study investigated the effects of daily consumption of Green Smoothies for 4 consecutive weeks on blood pressure and health-related quality of life. Green Smoothies are a blended drink consisting of fruit, leafy greens and water. The study was a randomized controlled trial with a final sample of 29 volunteer participants. Data were collected at baseline and post-intervention and included anthropometric and physiologic measures, as well as a nutrition survey. The treatment group demonstrated trends toward improvements in waist circumference (p = 0.026), waist-to-hip ratio (p = 0.05), and symptoms of burden linked to diet (p = 0.04), small intestine (p = 0.04), large intestine (p = 0.05), and mineral needs (p = 0.04). Despite the lack of statistically significant reductions in blood pressure, the trend toward improvements in waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio are considered to be useful and informative of health risk. Thus, the results of this study provide preliminary support for the consumption of Green Smoothies as a possible primary prevention effort for chronic conditions. It may also help to reduce health risks or even reverse the effects of chronic conditions.


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