Environmental Pressures and Pro-Government Militias: Evidence from the Philippines
Conflict Management and Peace Science
This study analyzes whether climate disasters and climate-induced food scarcities influence individuals’ willingness to fight for the state in a pro-government militia in the Philippines. We find that experiencing a disaster or subsistence loss corresponds to an increased willingness to join, even when accounting for other prominent explanations in the literature. This outcome, we argue, reflects the impact of climate change on the opportunity costs of conflict participation, especially in regions dependent on agriculture for income and food production, as diminished livelihood opportunities and subsistence resource access increase the viability of conflict participation as a strategy for livelihood diversification.
Copyright © 2022 by Peace Science Society (International)
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Eastin, J., & Zech, S. T. (2022). Environmental pressures and pro-government militias: Evidence from the Philippines. Conflict Management and Peace Science, 07388942221110128.