Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence Interruptions Are Associated With Systemic Inflammation Among Ugandans Who Achieved Viral Suppression
P30 AI027763 United States AI NIAID NIH HHS; R01 MH054907 United States MH NIMH NIH HHS; UM1 CA181255 United States CA NCI NIH HHS
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes.
BACKGROUND: Residual systemic inflammation, which is associated with non-AIDS clinical outcomes, may persist despite viral suppression. We assessed the effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence interruptions on systemic inflammation among Ugandans living with HIV who were virally suppressed.
SETTING: We evaluated adults initiating first-line ART at a regional referral hospital clinic in Mbarara, Uganda.
METHODS: Plasma concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), D-dimer, soluble sCD14, sCD163, the kynurenine/tryptophan (K/T) ratio, and CD8 T-cell activation (HLA-DR/CD38 coexpression) were measured at baseline and 6 months after ART initiation among participants who achieved viral suppression (< 400 copies/mL) at 6 months. ART adherence was monitored electronically. Time spent in an adherence interruption was computed as the percentage of days when the running average adherence was ≤ 10%. We fit adjusted linear regressions to evaluate the effect of time spent in an interruption on the log-transformed plasma concentrations of the inflammation biomarkers.
RESULTS: Of 282 participants, 70% were women, and the median age was 34 years. At baseline, median CD4 and median log viral load were 135 cells per microliter and 5.1 copies per milliliter, respectively. In the adjusted analysis, a running average adherence of < 10% was associated with higher sCD14 (+3%; P < 0.008), sCD163 (+5%; P = 0.002), D-dimer (+10%; P = 0.007), HLA-DR/CD8 (+3%; P < 0.025), IL-6 (+14%; P = 0.008), and K:T ratio (+5%; P = 0.002). These findings were largely robust to adjustment for average adherence, as well as higher thresholds of running average adherence, albeit with decreased statistical significance.
CONCLUSIONS: Increased time spent in adherence interruptions is associated with increased levels of inflammation, despite viral suppression above and beyond average adherence.
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Musinguzi, N., Castillo-Mancilla, J., Morrow, M., Byakwaga, H., Mawhinney, S., Burdo, T. H., Boum, Y., Muzoora, C., Bwana, B. M., Siedner, M. J., Martin, J. N., Hunt, P. W., Bangsberg, D. R., & Haberer, J. E. (2019). Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence Interruptions Are Associated With Systemic Inflammation Among Ugandans Who Achieved Viral Suppression. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (1999), 82(4), 386–391. https://doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000002148