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International Journal of Gynecology Obstetrics

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Birth Outcomes, Health services research, Low Birth weight, Maternal age, Mexico, Prenatal care, Preterm birth



We compared prenatal care utilization, preterm birth, and low birth weight neonates among women 35 years and older compared to women 20-34 years old in Mexico, 2008-2019.


We used birth certificate data and conducted a historical cohort study of all singleton live births in Mexico from 2008-2019. Study outcomes were inadequate prenatal care (timing of initiation of care and number of visits), preterm birth, and low birth weight. We compared outcomes among women 35-39, 40-44, and 45-49 with births to women 20-34. We used logistic regression to account for individual and contextual confounders.


We included a total of N=19,526,922 births; 11.9% (n=2,325,725) were to women 35 and older. Compared to women aged 20 to 34, the oldest (45-49 years old) were more likely to reside in poorer communities, have less education, and be uninsured. The odds of inadequate prenatal care (aOR 1.12 95% CI 1.09-1.15 p


Women who deliver at 35 years old and over are a heterogeneous group in Mexico. Being 35 years old and older is associated with increases in preterm birth and low birth weight neonates. Women who give birth between 45-49 may be especially vulnerable.


This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made. © 2023 The Authors. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.



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