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There is growing investment in infrastructure to support non-motorized travel modes in the United States, in particular for bicycling. However, there remains a dearth of knowledge on the relationships between built environments and bicycling for non-work transportation. This issue is exacerbated by researchers and practitioners continuing to combine walking and bicycling into the category “non-motorized modes,” despite the two having many differences. This paper addresses these shortcomings through a segmented analysis of mode choice and mode share for walking, bicycling, and automobile travel. The data used are from a 2011 establishment intercept survey in the Portland, Oregon region and are destination-based. Results show pronounced differences in the empirical relationships between walking and bicycling and the built environment, when controlling for aspects of the individual, site, and trip. Models for mode choice and mode share indicate that the built environment attributes that influence automobile and walk travel are similar; yet, their influence is in the opposite direction. Empirical relationships with the built environment are altogether different for bicycling trips. Socio-demographic variable results are consistent with much of the non-work mode choice literature, but trip distance is not. Trip distance has the expected relationship with walking, but does not have a significant relationship with bicycling. The findings on the built environment relationships with travel modes support a move away from combining walking and bicycling together as non-motorized transportation for analysis and planning. They also lend insight into additional considerations for future work in non-work transportation research and policy.


Urban transportation -- Oregon -- Portland -- Planning, Cycling -- Oregon -- Portland Metropolitan Area, Cycling -- Route choice, Choice of transportation -- Decision making


Transportation | Urban Studies and Planning

Persistent Identifier

Bicycling Is Different: Built Environment Relationships to Nonwork Travel



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