information literacy instruction, point-of-need, conceptual and procedural knowledge, digital reference, chat reference

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Research Article


The information literacy instruction (ILI) that occurs during a spontaneous information interaction, such as at the reference desk, is not clearly defined and not extensively researched. It differs, however, from classroom ILI, with its lesson plans, carefully considered learning outcomes, and planned learning activities. This paper uses the framework of conceptual and procedural knowledge, drawn from education research, to analyze point-of-need ILI. Digital reference transcripts were analyzed using this framework, and examples of ILI from the transcripts were categorized to make sense of how conceptual and procedural knowledge manifest in point-of-need ILI. This conceptual/procedural focus acknowledges the unique context of this type of instruction and provides a simple framework for reference service providers to improve and self-assess their point-of-need ILI.



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Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 4.0 License.