information literacy, graduate students, scale development, Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education, perceptions

Document Type

Research Article


The ACRL Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education has provided academic librarians a guiding document to facilitate the development of information literacy skills in students. Despite widespread adoption of the Framework in academic libraries, a lack of valid and reliable Framework-based scales for assessing students’ knowledge practices and dispositions hinders further understanding of student information literacy. The current article describes the development and testing of the Perception of Information Literacy Scale (PILS). The participants in this study were 443 graduate students. The resulting scale is made up of 36 items that measure seven distinct constructs of information literacy. The subscales of the PILS had good estimates of internal consistency and showed evidence of convergent and discriminant validity. PILS allows academic librarians to measure how students perceive their own information literacy knowledge practices and dispositions and could be useful for outreach, instructional design, and assessment activities.



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Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 4.0 License.

CIL.Doyle et al.2019.01.pdf (68 kB)
PILS Response Scale

CIL.Doyle et al.2019.02.pdf (19 kB)
Original 42-Item PILS

CIL.Doyle et al.2019.03.pdf (56 kB)
Final 36-Item PILS

CIL.Doyle et al.2019.04.pdf (86 kB)
Standardized Factor Loadings for Three Alternative Models