Water hyacinth, Plant bioactive compounds -- Separation, Steroids, Gas chromatography, Mass spectrometry
Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth) is an invasive weed that causes serious issues for rivers, lakes, and other reservoirs around the world, although it can be an excellent source for bioactive compounds such as phytosterols and some steroids found in many plants. In this study, water hyacinth samples from both Durango and Distrito Federal in Mexico were collected. Ascendant extracts (cyclohexane, hexane, acetone, and methanol) from their leaves, stems, and roots were analyzed. Using boron trifluoride (similar to 10% [similar to 1.3 M] in 1-butanol), all extracts were derivatized. Twenty-four derivatized samples were analyzed using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method. Twenty carboxylic acids were found, as well as squalene, which was found in nine extract samples: four cyclohexane extracts, one hexane extract, three acetone extracts, and two methanol extracts. A compound not reported before, beta-stigmasterol, was identified on three hexane extracts, an acetone extract, and a methalonic extract. Spirostane in acetone root extract and cholestane in cyclohexane stem-leaf extract were also identified.
Fileto-Pérez et al. (2015). “GC-MS, extractives,” BioResources 10(4), 7353-7360