Habitat, Geophysical, and Eco-Social Connectivity: Benefits of Resilient Socio-Ecological Landscapes
Connections among ecosystems and their components are critical to maintaining ecological functions and benefits in human-modified landscapes, including urban areas. However, the literature on connectivity and ecosystem services has been limited by inconsistent terminology and methods, and largely omits human access to nature and its benefits as a form of connectivity.
In this paper, we build upon previous research and theory to define distinct categories of connectivity, considering both ecological and social dimensions, and identify ecosystem services that are supported by them.
We reviewed the literature to determine socio–ecological benefits that depend on the categories of connectivity.
We identified four distinct but interrelated categories of connectivity: landscape, habitat, geophysical, and eco-social connectivity. Each connectivity category directly or indirectly supports many ecosystem services. There are overlaps, conflicts, and synergies among connectivity categories and their associated services and disservices.
Identifying the services that arise from these four categories of connectivity, and how they interact, can help build a common understanding of the value of connectivity to maximize its benefits, improve understanding of complex socio–ecological systems across disciplines, and develop more holistic, socially equitable decision-making processes, especially in urban landscapes.
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Butler, E. P., Bliss-Ketchum, L. L., de Rivera, C. E., Dissanayake, S. T. M., Hardy, C. L., Horn, D. A., Huffine, B., Temple, A. M., Vermeulen, M. E., & Wallace, H. (2021). Habitat, geophysical, and eco-social connectivity: benefits of resilient socio–ecological landscapes. Landscape Ecology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-021-01339-y