First Advisor

Angela Ozburn

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science (B.S.) in Psychology and University Honors






Nicotine Use Disorders (NUDs), Nicotine Intake, Cotinine Levels, inbred High Drinking in the Dark (iHDID) mice, Drinking in the Dark (DID)


Nicotine use disorders (NUDs) pose a persistent global health threat, contributing to significant morbidity and mortality. It is a complex issue arising from a combination of different factors; thus, it is crucial to approach it from different perspectives. In this study, we aimed to determine whether the inbred High Drinking in the Dark (iHDID) mice replicate lines (iHDID-1 and iHDID-2) represent a good model for nicotine use disorders (NUDs). We measured nicotine (50µg/mL) intake in a Drinking in the Dark (DID) assay (n=12/sex/line). At the end of the DID assay, we measured serum cotinine levels using a cotinine ELISA kit. We found that iHDID-2 females consumed more nicotine than male iHDID-2 (p2= 0.688, p = 0.0057). Findings demonstrate that the iHDID mice consumed nicotine to levels that are comparable to those in previous studies and reached cotinine levels consistent with tobacco use. This suggests that iHDID mice are a stable model that can be used for testing the underlying mechanisms of NUD, and to test potential treatments that could be used to reduce nicotine use or alleviate symptoms of NUD.

Available for download on Sunday, May 24, 2026