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High strength steel -- Welding, Friction stir welding, Adaptive control systems, Dissimilar welding


Despite increasing need for friction stir spot welding (FSSW) for high-temperature softening materials, system deflection due to relatively high plunging force remains an obstacle. System deflection results in the vertical position error of a welding tool and insufficient plunge depth. In this study, we used adaptive control to maintain plunge depth, the plunging force was coaxially measured, and the position error was estimated using a force–deflection model. A linear relationship was confirmed between the force and deflection; this relationship is dependent on the stiffness of the welding system while independent of process parameters and base materials. The proposed model was evaluated during the FSSW of an Al 6061-T6 alloy sheet and a dissimilar metal combination of Al 6061-T6 alloy/dual phase (DP) 590 steel. Under varying process parameters, the adaptive control maintained a plunge depth with an error of less than 50 µm. Conventional position control has a maximum error of nearly 300 µm.


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