Published In

Nanoscale Research Letters

Document Type


Publication Date



Codeposition -- Research, Inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition (ICPCVD)


Here, we report a novel method for low-temperature synthesis of monolayer graphene at 450 °C on a polycrystalline bimetal Ni-Au catalyst. In this study, low-temperature chemical vapor deposition synthesis of graphene was performed at 450 °C on codeposited Ni-Au which shows successful monolayer graphene formation without an extra annealing process. The experimental results suggest that electron beam codeposition of bimetal catalyst is the key procedure that enables the elimination of the pre-growth high-temperature annealing of the catalyst prior to graphene synthesis, an indispensable process, used in previous reports. The formation was further improved by plasma-assisted growth in which the inductively coupled plasma ionizes the carbon precursors that interact with codeposited Ni-Au catalyst of 50 nm in thickness at 450 °C. These combined growth conditions drastically increase the graphene’s sheet uniformity and area connectivity from 11.6% to 99%. These fabrication parameters enable the graphene formation that shifts from a bulk diffusion-based growth model towards a surface based reaction. The technique reported here opens the opportunity for the low-temperature growth of graphene for potential use in future CMOS applications.


© The Author(s). 2019

Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.



Persistent Identifier