Comprehensive Analysis of the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Friction-Stir-Welded Low-Carbon High-Strength Steels with Tensile Strengths Ranging from 590 Mpa to 1.5 Gpa

Published In

Applied Sciences

Document Type


Publication Date



High-strength steels are being increasingly employed in the automotive industry, requiring efficient welding processes. This study analyzed the materials and mechanical properties of high-strength automotive steels with strengths ranging from 590 MPa to 1500 MPa, subjected to friction stir welding (FSW), which is a solid-phase welding process. The high-strength steels were hardened by a high fraction of martensite, and the welds were composed of a recrystallized zone (RZ), a partially recrystallized zone (PRZ), a tempered zone (TZ), and an unaffected base metal (BM). The RZ exhibited a higher hardness than the BM and was fully martensitic when the BM strength was 980 MPa or higher. When the BM strength was 780 MPa or higher, the PRZ and TZ softened owing to tempered martensitic formation and were the fracture locations in the tensile test, whereas BM fracture occurred in the tensile test of the 590 MPa steel weld. The joint strength, determined by the hardness and width of the softened zone, increased and then saturated with an increase in the BM strength. From the results, we can conclude that the thermal history and size of the PRZ and TZ should be controlled to enhance the joint strength of automotive steels.


Copyright (2021) MDPI



Persistent Identifier