Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy
Wind turbines -- Aerodynamics
The interaction of wind turbines with turbulent atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flows represents a complex multi-scale problem that spans several orders of magnitudes of spatial and temporal scales. These scales range from the interactions of large wind farms with the ABL (on the order of tens of kilometers) to the small length scale of the wind turbine blade boundary layer (order of a millimeter). Detailed studies of multi-scale wind energy aerodynamics are timely and vital to maximize the efficiency of current and future wind energy projects, be they onshore, bottom-fixed offshore, or floating offshore. Among different research modalities, wind tunnel experiments have been at the forefront of research efforts in the wind energy community over the last few decades. They provide valuable insight about the aerodynamics of wind turbines and wind farms, which are important in relation to optimized performance of these machines. The major advantage of wind tunnel research is that wind turbines can be experimentally studied under fully controlled and repeatable conditions allowing for systematic research on the wind turbine interactions that extract energy from the incoming atmospheric flow. Detailed experimental data collected in the wind tunnel are also invaluable for validating and calibrating numerical models.
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Bastankhah, M., Hamilton, N., & Cal, R. B. (2022). Wind tunnel research, dynamics, and scaling for wind energy. Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, 14(6), 060402.