Submissions from 2019

Morphology-controlled Copper Nanowire Synthesis and Magnetic Field Assisted Self-assembly, Srikar Rao Darmakkolla, Mitra Ghobadi, Lester Lampert, Amanda F. Pareira, Ana Jenike, Musa Tahir, and Shankar B. Rananavare

Discovery and Structural Optimization of Acridones as Broad-Spectrum Antimalarials, Rozalia A. Dodean, Papireddy Kancharla, Yuexin Li, Victor Melendez, Lisa Read, Charles E. Bane, Brian Vesely, Mara Kreishman-Deitrick, Chad Black, Qigui Li, Richard J. Scott, Raul Olmeda, Thu-Lan Luong, Heather Gaona, Brittney Potter, Jason Sousa, Sean Marcsisin, Diana Caridha, Lisa Xie, Chau Vuong, Qiang Zeng, Jing Zhang, Ping Zhang, Hsiuling Lin, Kirk Butler, Norma Roncal, Lacy Gaynor-Ohnstad, Susan E. Leed, Christina Nolan, Stephanie J. Huezo, Stephanie A. Rasmussen, Melissa T. Stephens, John C. Tan, Roland A. Cooper, Martin J. Smilkstein, Sovitj Pou, Rolf W. Winter, Michael K. Riscoe, and Jane X. Kelly

Sucralose-Enhanced Degradation of Electronic Cigarette Liquids during Vaping, Anna K. Duell, Kevin J. McWhirter, Tetiana Korzun, Robert M. Strongin, and David H. Peyton

Synthetic Food Dyes in Electronic Cigarettes, Tetiana Korzun, Ian Munhenzva, Jorge O. Escobedo, and Robert M. Strongin


Conformational Communication Mediates the Reset Step in t6A Biosynthesis, Amit Luthra, Naduni Paranagama, William Swinehart, Susan Bayooz, Phuc Phan, Vanessa Quach, Jamie M. Schiffer, Boguslaw Stec, Dirk Iwata-Reuyl, and Manal A. Swairjo

Singlet Oxygen Quantum Yields Determined by Oxygen Consumption, Luke V. Lutkus, Sam S. Rickenbach, and Theresa M. McCormick

Free-Base Nicotine Is Nearly Absent in Aerosol from IQOS Heat-Not-Burn Devices, As Determined by H-1 NMR Spectroscopy, Jiries Meehan-Atrash, Anna K. Duell, Kevin J. McWhirter, Wentai Luo, David H. Peyton, and Robert M. Strongin


Limited Sequence Diversity Within a Population Supports Prebiotic RNA Reproduction, Ryo Mizuuchi and Niles Lehman

Assessment of Human Pancreas Cancer Tissue and Precursor Lesions via a Fluorophore With Inherent PDAC Selectivity, Ian R. Munhenzva, Connor W. Barth, Martha Sibrian-Vazquez, Lei G. Wang, Jorge O. Escobedo, Summer L. Gibbs, and Robert M. Strongin


High-Nicotine Electronic Cigarette Products: Toxicity of JUUL Fluidsand Aerosols Correlates Strongly with Nicotine and Some FlavorChemical Concentrations, Esther E. Omaiye, Kevin J. McWhirter, Wentai Luo, James F. Pankow, and Prue Talbot

Rapid Quantitative Spectroelectrochemical Responses of Hydrogel-based Sensors for the in situ Evaluation of Corrosion Inhibitors on Steel, Capri A. Price and Tami Lasseter Clare

Polymer-based Soft Topographical Features Functionalized by Magnetron Sputtering, Deepak Rajput, Emmanuel O. Abdul, Srikar R. Darmakkolla, Fredrick DeArmond, Otto Zeitz, Lino Costa, Alexander Terekhov, and Shankar B. Rananavare

Tellurorhodamine Photocatalyzed Aerobic Oxidation of Organo-silanes and Phosphines by Visible-light, Irving D. Rettig, Jackson Van, Jacob B. Brauer, Wentai Luo, and Theresa M. McCormick


Targeting Mitochondria in Cancer Therapy Could Provide a Basis for the Selective Anticancer Activity, Dmitri Rozanov, Anton Cheltsov, Aaron Nilsen, Christopher Boniface, Isaac Forquer, James Korkola, Joe Gray, and +

Differences in the Relaxometric Properties of Regioisomeric Benzyl-DOTA Bifunctional Chelators: Implications for Molecular Imaging, Lauren Rust, Katherine M. Payne, Fabio Carniato, Mauro Botta, and Mark Woods


Spontaneous Advent of Genetic Diversity in RNA Populations Through Multiple Recombination Mechanisms, Benedict A. Smail, Bryce E. Clifton, Ryo Mizuuchi, and Niles Lehman

Altering Fundamental Trends in the Emission of Xanthene Dyes, Lei G. Wang, Ian Munhenzva, Martha Sibrian-Vazquez, Jorge O. Escobedo, Catherine H. Kitts, Frank R. Fronczek, and Robert M. Strongin


Crystal Structures of Dotma Chelates from Ce³+ to Yb³+ : Evidence for a Continuum of Metal Ion Hydration States, Mark Woods, Katherine M. Payne, Edward J. Valente, Benjamin E. Kucera, and Victor G. Young Jr.

Submissions from 2018


Using Spectral Methods to Obtain Particle Size Information from Optical Data: Applications to Measurements from CARES 2010, Dean B. Atkinson


Imide Arylation with Aryl(TMP)iodonium Tosylates, Souradeep Basu, Alexander H. Sandtorv, and David R. Stuart


Analytical and Toxicological Evaluation of Flavor Chemicals in Electronic Cigarette Refill Fluids, Rachel Z. Behar, Wentai Luo, Kevin J. McWhirter, James F. Pankow, and Prue Talbot


Varied Length Stokes Shift BODIPY-Based Fluorophores for Multicolor Microscopy, Amy M. Bittel, Ashley M. Davis, Lei Wang, Michel A. Nederlof, Jorge O. Escobedo, Robert Strongin, and Summer L. Gibbs


Facile Synthesis of Ligand-Free Iridium Nanoparticles and Their In Vitro Biocompatibility, Anna L. Brown, Hayden Winter, Andrea M. Goforth, Gaurav Sahay, and Conroy Sun

Chemoresistive and Photonic Hydrogel Sensors of Transition Metal Ions Via Hofmeister Series Principles, James Carroll, Capri A. Price, and Tami Lasseter Clare


Multivalency Regulates Activity in an Intrinsically Disordered Transcription Factor, Sarah Clark, Janette B. Myers, Ashleigh King, Radovan Fiala, Jiri Novacek, Grant Pearce, Steve L. Reichow, and Elisar J. Barbar


Boiling Points of the Propylene Glycol + Glycerol System at 1 Atmosphere Pressure: 188.6–292 °c Without and with Added Water or Nicotine, Anna K. Duell, James F. Pankow, Samantha M. Gillette, and David H. Peyton


Free-Base Nicotine Determination in Electronic Cigarette Liquids by 1H NMR Spectroscopy, Anna K. Duell, James F. Pankow, and David H. Peyton


ParaCEST Agents Encapsulated in Reverse Nano-Assembled Capsules (RACs): How Slow Molecular Tumbling Can Quench CEST Contrast, Annah Farashishiko, Jacqueline R. Slack, Mauro Botta, and Mark Woods


Flavour Chemicals in a Sample of Non-Cigarette Tobacco Products Without Explicit Flavour Names Sold in New York City in 2015, Shannon M. Farley, Kevin R.J. Schroth, Victoria Grimshaw, Wentai Luo, Julia Lynn DeGagne, Peyton A. Tierney, Kilsun Kim, and James F. Pankow

Introducing the Journal of Chemical Education's "Special Issue: Polymer Concepts across the Curriculum", Warren T. Ford

Using Quenching To Detect Corrosion on Sculptural Metalwork: A Real-World Application of Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Cory Hensen, Tami Lasseter Clare, and Jack Barbera

Spontaneous Covalent Self-Assembly of the Azoarcus Ribozyme from Five Fragments, Tharuka S. Jayathilaka and Niles Lehman

Detecting Intracellular ClO- with Ratiometric Fluorescent Signal and its Application in Civo, Jin Kang, Fangjun Huo, Yongbin Zhang, Jianbin Chao, Robert M. Strongin, and Caixia Yin

Evaluation of the Influence of Wording Changes and Course Type on Motivation Instrument Functioning in Chemistry, Regis Komperda, Kathryn N. Hosbein, and Jack Barbera

Moving Beyond Alpha: A Primer on Alternative Sources of Single-Administration Reliability Evidence for Quantitative Chemistry Education Research, Regis Komperda, Thomas C. Pentecost, and Jack Barbera


E‑Cigarette Airflow Rate Modulates Toxicant Profiles and Can Lead to Concerning Levels of Solvent Consumption, Tetiana Korzun, Maryana Lazurko, Tetiana Korzun, Ian Munhenzva, Kelley Barsanti, Yilin Huang, R. Paul Jensen, Jorge O. Escobedo, Wentai Luo, David H. Peyton, and Robert M. Strongin


Structure and Mechanism of a Bacterial t6A Biosynthesis System, Amit Luthra, William Swinehart, Susan Bayooz, Phuc Phan, Boguslaw Stec, Dirk Iwata-Reuyl, and Manal A. Swairjo

Promiscuity of Methionine Salvage Pathway Enzymes in Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, Daniere V. Miller, Benjamin J. Rauch, Kim Harich, Huimin Xu, John J. Perona, and Robert H. White


Structure of Native Lens Connexin 46/50 Intercellular Channels by Cryo-EM, Janette B. Myers, Bassam G. Haddad, Susan E. O'Neill, Dror S. Chorev, Craig C. Yashioka, Carol V. Robinson, Daniel M. Zuckerman, and Steve L. Reichow

Gas/Particle Partitioning Constants of Nicotine, Selected Toxicants, and Flavor Chemicals in Solutions of 50/50 Propylene Glycol/Glycerol as used in Electronic Cigarettes, James F. Pankow, Kilsun Kim, Wentai Luo, and Kevin J. McWhirter

Gadolinium Chelate Safety in Pregnancy: Barely Detectable Gadolinium Levels in the Juvenile Nonhuman Primate after in Utero Exposure, Joao Prola-Netto, Mark Woods, Victoria H.J. Roberts, Elinor L. Sullivan, Christina Ann Miller, Antonio E. Frias, and Karen Y. Oh


E-cigarettes Can Emit Formaldehyde at High Levels Under Conditions That Have Been Reported to be Non-averse to Users, James C. Salamanca, Jiries Meehan-Attrash, Shawna Vreeke, Jorge O. Escobedo, David H. Peyton, and Robert M. Strongin

An Admix Approach To Determine Counter Anion Effects on Metal-Free Arylation Reactions with Diaryliodonium Salts, Thomas L. Seidl and David R. Stuart

Effect of Ligand Modification on the Mechanism of Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Production by Ni(pyridinethiolate)(3)(-) Derivatives, Carolyn N. Virca, Josh R. Lohmolder, Joshua B. Tsang, Theresa M. McCormick, and Matthew M. Davis

Dihydroxyacetone Levels in Electronic Cigarettes: Wick Temperature and Toxin Formation, Shawna Vreeke, Tetiana Korzun, Wentai Luo, R. Paul Jensen, David H. Peyton, and Robert M. Strongin


Triacetin Enhances Levels of Acrolein, Formaldehyde Hemiacetals, and Acetaldehyde in Electronic Cigarette Aerosols, Shawna Vreeke, David H. Peyton, and Robert Strongin


Aerobic Method for the Synthesis of Nearly Size-Monodisperse Bismuth Nanoparticles from a Redox Non-Innocent Precursor, Hayden Winter, Elena Christopher-Allison, Anna L. Brown, and Andrea M. Goforth

Identification of the Minimal Bacterial 2'-deoxy-7-amido-7-deazaguanine Synthesis Machinery, Yifeng Yuan, Geoffrey Hutinet, Jacqueline Gamboa Valera, Jennifer Hu, Roman Hillebrand, Andrew Gustafson, Dirk Iwata-Reuyl, Peter C. Dedon, and Valérie de Crécy-Lagard

Submissions from 2017

Bubbling and Foaming Assisted Clearing of Mucin Plugs in Microfluidic Y-Junctions, Daner Abdula, Ryan Lerud, and Shankar B. Rananavare


The t6A Modification Acts as a Positive Determinant for the Anticodon Nuclease Prrc, and is Distinctively Nonessential in Streptococcus mutans, Jo Marie Bacusmo, Silvia S. Orsini, Jennifer Hu, Michael DeMott, Patrick C. Thiaville, Ameer Elfarash, Mellie June Paulines, Diego Rojas-Benítez, Birthe Meineke, Christopher Deutsch, Dirk Iwata-Reuyl, Patrick A. Limbach, Peter C. Dedon, Kelly C. Rice, Stewart Shuman, and Valérie de Crécy-Lagard


Life’s Late Digital Revolution and Why It Matters for the Study of the Origins of Life, David A. Baum and Niles Lehman


QueF-Like, a Non-Homologous Archaeosine Synthase from the Crenarchaeota, Adriana Bon Ramos, Lide Bao, Ben Turner, Valérie de Crécy-Lagard, and Dirk Iwata-Reuyl

Choice of Study Resources in General Chemistry by Students Who Have Little Time to Study, Diane M. Bruce, Regis Komperda, Debra K. Dillner, and Shirley Lin

Differential Use of Study Approaches by Students of Different Achievement Levels, Diane M. Bunce, Regis Komperda, Maria J. Schroeder, Debra K. Dillner, Shirley Lin, Melonie A. Teichert, and JudithAnn R. Hartman

Electrochemical versus Enzymatic in Vitro Oxidations of 6-propyl-2-thiouracil: Identification, Detection, and Characterization of Metabolites, Kudzanai Chipiso and Reuben H. Simoyi

Poly-tetrakis-5,10,15,20-(4-aminophenyl)porphyrin Films as Two-Electron Oxygen Reduction Photoelectrocatalysts for the Production of H2O2, Nicholas U. Day and Carl C. Wamser


Lyapunov Exponents and the Belousov-Zhabotinsky Oscillator: An Interactive Computational Approach, Matthew W. Eskew and Reuben H. Simoyi

Crosslinked Shells for Nano-Assembled Capsules: A New Encapsulation Method for Smaller Gd(3+)-Loaded Capsules with Exceedingly High Relaxivities, Annah Farashishiko, Sally E. Plush, Karley B. Maier, A. Dean Sherry, and Mark Woods


Simplified Reversed Chloroquines To Overcome Malaria Resistance to Quinoline-Based Drugs, Bornface Gunsaru, Steven J. Burgess, Westin Morrill, Jane X. Kelly, Shawheen Shomloo, Martin J. Smilkstein, Katherine May Liebman, and David H. Peyton

Measuring Sheet Resistances of Dielectrics Using Co-Planar Hydrogel Electrochemical Cells with Practical Applications to Characterize the Protective Quality of Paints on Sculptures, Kathryn N. Hosbein, Alice H. England, Capri A. Price, and Tami Lasseter Clare


Solvent Chemistry in the Electronic Cigarette Reaction Vessel, Robert Paul Jensen, Robert M. Strongin, and David H. Peyton


Health Disparities in Veterans: A Map of the Evidence, Karli Kondo, Allison Low, Teresa Everson, Christine D. Gordon, Stephanie Veazie, Crystal Lozier, Michele Freeman, Makalapua Motu’apuaka, Aaron Mendelson, Marl Friesen, Robin Paynter, Caroline Friesen, Johanna Anderson, Erin Boundy, Somnath Saha, Ana Quiñones, and Devan Kansagara

Novel Application of Simple Molybdates: Catalytic Hydrolysis of an Organophosphate Neurotoxin Under Mild Aqueous Conditions, Louis Y. Kuo, Kristina M. Dill, Yusef A. Shari'ati, Emily K. Bright, and Theresa McCormick

Photocatalytic Aerobic Thiol Oxidation with a Self-Sensitized Tellurorhodamine Chromophore, Luke V. Lutkus, Haley E. Irving, Kellie S. Davies, Jacqueline E. Hill, James E. Lohman, Matthew W. Eskew, Michael R. Detty, and Theresa M. McCormick

MarH, a Bifunctional Enzyme Involved in the Condensation and Hydroxylation Steps of the Marineosin Biosynthetic Pathway, Wanli Lu, Papireddy Kancharla, and Kevin A. Reynolds


Prebiotic RNA Network Formation: A Taxonomy of Molecular Cooperation, Cole Mathis, Sanjay N. Ramprasad, Sara Imari Walker, and Niles Lehman


Toxicant Formation in Dabbing: The Terpene Story, Jiries Meehan-Attrash, Wentai Luo, and Robert M. Strongin


Protection of the Queuosine Biosynthesis Enzyme QueF from Irreversible Oxidation by a Conserved Intramolecular Disulfide, Adeba Mohammad, Adriana Bon Ramos, Bobby W.K. Lee, Spencer William Cohen, Maryam K. Kiani, Dirk Iwata-Reuyl, Boguslaw Stec, and Manal A. Swairjo

Use of Sacrificial Nanoparticles to Remove the Effects of Shot-noise in Contact Holes Fabricated by E-beam Lithography, Moshood K. Morakinyo and Shankar B. Rananavare


The CaMKII Holoenzyme Structure in Activation Competent Conformations, Janette B. Myers, Vincent Zaegel, Steven J. Coultrap, Adam P. Miller, K. Ulrich Bayer, and Steve L. Reichow

Calculating Compound Dependent Gas-Droplet Distributions in Aerosols of Propylene Glycol and Glycerol from Electronic Cigarettes, James F. Pankow


Benzene Formation in Electronic Cigarettes, James F. Pankow, Kilsun Kim, Kevin J. McWhirter, Wentai Luo, Jorge O. Escobedo, Robert M. Strongin, Anna K. Duell, and David H. Peyton


Mechanism and Catalytic Strategy of the Prokaryotic Specific GTP Cyclohydrolase IB, Naduni Paranagama, Shilah A. Bonnett, Jonathan Alvarez, Amit Luthra, Boguslaw Stec, Andrew Gustafson, Dirk Iwata-Reuyl, and Manal A. Swairjo

On Water and its Effect on the Performance of T-1-Shortening Contrast Agents, Katherine M. Payne, Jennifer M. Wilds, Fabio Carniato, Mauro Botta, and Mark Woods

Persulfide Formation Mediates Cysteine and Homocysteine Biosynthesis in Methanosarcina acetivorans, Benjamin J. Rauch, John Klimek, Larry David, and John J. Perona

Colloidal 3-Mercaptopropionic Acid Capped Lead Sulfide Quantum Dots in a Low Boiling Point Solvent, Chase C. Reinhart and Erik Johansson


Formaldehyde Hemiacetal Sampling, Recovery, and Quantification from Electronic Cigarette Aerosols, James C. Salamanca, Ian Munhenzva, Jorge O. Escodedo, R. Paul Jensen, Angela Shaw, Robert Campbell, Wentai Luo, David H. Peyton, and Robert Strongin

Influence of β-octabromination on Free-base Triarylcorroles: Electrochemistry and Protonation-deprotonation Reactions in Nonaqueous Media, Yang Song, Yuanyuan Fang, Zhongping Ou, Jan Capar, Chenyi Wang, Jeanet Conradie, Kolle E. Thomas, Carl C. Wamser, Abhik Ghosh, and Karl M. Kadish


Aryl Transfer Selectivity in Metal-free Reactions of Unsymmetrical Diaryliodonium Salts, David Stuart

Improving Target Amino Acid Selectivity in a Permissive Aminoacyl tRNA Synthetase Through Counter-Selection, Itthipol Sungwienwong, Zachary M. Hostetler, Robert J. Blizzard, Joseph J. Porter, Camden D. Driggers, Lea Z. Mbengi, José A. Villegas, Lee C. Speight, Jeffery G. Saven, John J. Perona, Rahul M. Kohli, Ryan A. Mehl, and E. James Petersson

Photocatalytic Water Reduction Using a Polymer Coated Carbon Quantum Dot Sensitizer and a Nickel Nanoparticle Catalyst, Carolyn N. Virca, Hayden Winter, Andrea Mitchell Goforth, Marilyn R. Mackiewicz, and Theresa M. McCormick


Far-Red and Near-Infrared Seminaphthofluorophores for Targeted Pancreatic Cancer Imaging, Lei Wang, Connor W. Barth, Martha Sibrian-Vazquez, Jorge O. Escodedo, Mark Lowry, John Muschler, Haiyan Li, Summer L. Gibbs, and Robert Strongin


Topological and Thermodynamic Factors that Influence the Evolution of Small Networks of Catalytic RNA Species, Jessica Anne Mellor Yeates, Philippe Nghe, and Niles Lehman

Fluorescent Probes with Multiple Binding Sites for the Discrimination of Cys, Hcy, and GSH, Cai-Xia Yin, Kang-Ming Xiong, Fangjun Huo, Robert M. Strongin, James C. Salamanca, and Robert M. Strongin

Submissions from 2016

Evaluation of the Reactivity of Exhaust From Various Biodiesel Blends as a Measure of Possible Oxidative Effects: A Concern for Human Exposure, Adeniyi A. Adenuga, Monica E. Wright, and Dean B. Atkinson

Gold Tris(carboxyphenyl)corroles as Multifunctional Materials: Room Temperature Near-IR Phosphorescence and Applications to Photodynamic Therapy and Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells, Abraham B. Alemayehu, Nicholas U. Day, Tomoyasu Mani, Alexander B. Rudine, Kolle E. Thomas, Odrun A. Gederaas, Sergei A. Vinogradov, Carl C. Wamser, and Abhik Ghosh


Fluorescein Tri-Aldehyde Promotes the Selective Detection of Homocysteine, Aabha Barve, Mark Lowry, Jorge Escobedo, Josephrajan Thainashmuthu, and Robert Strongin


Distribution, Quantification and Toxicity of Cinnamaldehyde in Electronic Cigarette Refill Fluids and Aerosols, Rachel Z. Behar, Wentai Luo, Sabrina C. Lin, Yuhuan Wang, Jackelyn Valle, James F. Pankow, and Prue Talbot


The Elusive Quest for RNA Knots, Aaron S. Burton, Marco Di Stefano, Niles Lehman, Henri Orland, and Cristian Micheletti


Understanding the Optical Properties of Ambient Sub-and Supermicron Particulate Matter: Results from the CARES 2010 Field Study in Northern California, Christopher D. Cappa, Katheryn R. Kolesar, Xiaolu Zhang, Dean B. Atkinson, Mikhail S. Pekour, Rahul A. Zaveri, Alla Zelenyuk, and Qi Zhang

Synthesis of Aryl(2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl)iodonium Trifluoroacetate Salts, Virginie Carreras, Alexander H. Sandtorv, and David R. Stuart

Towards p-Type Conductivity in SnO2Nanocrystals through Li Doping and Its Applications in Porous Diodes for Room Temperature Chlorine Gas Detection, Allen Chaparadza and Shankar Rananavare

Kinetics and Mechanism of Bioactivation via S-Oxygenation of Anti-Tubercular Agent Ethionamide by Peracetic Acid, Kudzanai Chipiso, Isabelle E. Logan, Matthew W. Eskew, Benard Omondi, and Reuben H. Simoyi


Oxyhalogen-Sulfur Chemistry: Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidation of N-acetylthiourea by Aqueous Bromate and Acidified Bromate, Kudzanai Chipiso, Wilbes Mbiya, Thai Tran, and Reuben H. Simoyi


Electrochemistry-Coupled to Mass Spectrometry in Simulation of Metabolic Oxidation of Methimazole: Identification and Characterization of Metabolites, Kudzanai Chipiso and Reuben H. Simoyi

Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidation of Methimazole by Chlorite in Slightly Acidic Media, Kudzanai Chipiso and Reuben H. Simoyi

Rhodamine Analogues for Molecular Ruler Applications, Yu-Hsuan Chu, Jorge O. Escobedo, Meiyan Jiang, Peter S. Steyger, and Robert M. Strongin

Systemic Delivery and Biodistribution of Cisplatin in Vivo, Yu-Hsuan Chu, Martha Sibrian-Vazquez, Jorge O. Escobedo, Amanda R. Phillips, D. Thomas Dickey, Qi Wang, Martina Ralle, Peter S. Steyger, and Robert M. Strongin

A Method to Derivatize Surface Silanol Groups to Si-Alkyl Groups in Carbon-Doped Silicon Oxides, Srikar Rao Darmakkolla, Hoang Tran, Atul Gupta, and Shankar B. Rananavare

Thermal Effects of Microinverter Placement on the Performance of Silicon Photovoltaics, Nicholas U. Day, Chase C. Reinhart, Shaun DeBow, Matthew K. Smith, David J. Sailor, Erik Johansson, and Carl C. Wamser